SC.3.L.14.1 Describe structures in plants and their roles in food production, support, water and nutrient transport, and reproduction.
SC.3.L.15.2 Classify flowering and nonflowering plants into major groups such as those that produce seeds, or those like ferns and mosses that produce spores, according to their physical characteristics.

By: Jenna Cavano


Photosynthesis: the process that plants and some other organisms use to make sugar for food.

Chloroplast: the green part of the plant of a plant cell that uses the energy in sunlight to turn water and carbon into sugar and oxygen.

Chlorophyll: It captures sunlight.

Spore: A small, usually single-called reproductive body that can grow into an organsim without uniting with another cell.


Have you ever heard that in order for plants to live the cells need sunlight? Or talk to plant? It's true. If you talk to plant carbon dioxide goes to the plant to use and the oxygen from the plant will keep you alive You may wonder about how this happens. How do the cells work at night without sunlight? How does a plant convert sunlight into energy? Or how do plant's roots live without ever getting sunlight?

People can figure these out if you know that plant cells use cellular respiration, just like our cellls. They use oxygen to grow, repair, and reproduction. Photosynthesis happens in the chlorplasts of plant cells. Sunlight supplies the energy needed for photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis is usually written as:

  • Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight energy --> Oxygen + sugar

Sugar is moved to all the plant cells of a plant, with the cells of the underground roots. The plants don't use all of the sugar they make immediately, they will use some of it and store some of it for use in the winter when the food sources are hard to recive. For long-term storage, the plants will join the sugars with a chemical called starch. Plants aren't the olny living organisms that get starch. We get it too! When we eat food from plants, you eat the sugars and starches from that plant. Some plants that contain starches are potatoes, rice, corn, pastas, fruits, bean, grain, vegetables, and all bread products do contain starch as well. We convort starches from plants into fuel to run us for the day also known as starch.

Sugar is not just energy its about a thousand different sugars combine to create cellulose.

The way to classify a flowering and nonflowering plant is hard sometimes. But the more you classify the flowering and nonflowering plants it gets easier.

The flowering plants can be divided into 2 different groups:

  • length

  • pattern

The seed sprout or germinate, the seedling devlope in to a flowering plant, and a new seeds are made, then the parent plant dies. This all happens in one growing season.

These are the main 11 non flowering plants:

  • mosses

  • liverworts

  • hornworts

  • whisk ferns

  • club mosses

  • horse tails

  • ferns

  • conifers

  • cycads

  • ginkgo

  • gnetophyte

The last four make up another group called gymnosperms which means they make seeds instead of spores.

Non flowering plants have spores and they by releasing tiny spores. These tiny organsims are made of one or a few cells in a tough coat.


classify flowering plants

classify non flowering plants

Scoot Foreman Florida Science Book pages 96-97